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Russian secrets? Here’s the ultimate Moscow itinerary

Aanchal Anand

Moscow is a city where the past and the future live side by side. Here you will find everything from medieval fortresses and Soviet monoliths to glass skyscrapers and innovation centers. Moscow’s spirit mirrors its uncontainable size. Muscovites, the city’s approximately 12 million residents, are always on the run, so be prepared to keep pace with their energy. Here’s how to make the most of three days in Moscow.

Day 1: Mosaics and metro stations

9 a.m. Navigate the labyrinth of the Moscow metro, a living, breathing work of art crisscrossing the metropolis. Expect marble arches and pillars, gilded mosaics, and sparkling chandeliers. Each station is unique. Some of the most beautiful stations are Kievskaya and Prospekt Mira (brown line); Mayakovskaya (dark green line); and Ploschad Revolutsii, Arbatskaya and Elektrozavodskaya (dark blue line). Getting lost on the metro is a rite of passage. However, ahead of the 2018 World Cup, most trains introduced route maps and announcements in English to make navigation easier for outsiders.

Three stations take you to Red Square, but Ploschad Revolutsii is ideal. Its platforms have numerous bronze statues of soldiers with their dogs. Locals often stop by to rub the dogs’ noses as they make a wish. (See pictures of Moscow’s surprisingly elegant subway stations.)

9:45 a.m. Head to the iconic Red Square to see the red-bricked towers and the eastern wall of the Moscow Kremlin, Vladimir Lenin’s mausoleum, the State Historical Museum, and the psychedelically colorful domes of the St. Basil’s Cathedral. Queue early outside Lenin’s mausoleum for a spooky date with the man behind the Russian Revolution, who has rested in this tomb, preserved in chemicals, for almost 100 years.

The postcard-perfect St. Basil’s Cathedral was built in the 16th century to commemorate Tsar Ivan the Terrible’s victory over the Khanate of Kazan and the transformation of Moscow into a major center of power. Drop in for a quick visit or keep walking south towards the Moskva River and the Bolshoi Moskvaretskii Bridge for spectacular views of the Kremlin and the Red Square.

Another structure that will catch your eye is the golden-domed Cathedral of Christ the Savior, just southwest of the Kremlin. Unlike St. Basil’s, this Cathedral did not survive the communist persecution of religion. The original was destroyed in 1931 and the area was converted to an open-air swimming pool, the largest in the world. The fall of communism brought with it religious freedom and the Cathedral was rebuilt in the 1990s. If you turn around, you will see one of the “Seven Sisters,” the Stalinist monoliths that command Moscow’s skyline.

11:45 a.m. Head back towards the Red Square for a shopping trip at GUM (pronounced goom), the largest department store in Russia. Much like Russia, the store has undergone many changes. Built in imperial times as a massive trading center, GUM’s Soviet-era badge of honor was being relatively better stocked than other stores. Today, it’s a glittering mall that houses Hermès and Louis Vuitton. Even if you don’t shop, the long, arched galleries and concave glass roof make it an architectural delight. Next, make your way to the third floor for Stolovaya No. 57 (Canteen No. 57), a Soviet-style restaurant with local dishes and a laid-back vibe. Try the syrniki (roughly translated as cheesecakes), buckwheat with mushroom sauce, or meat cutlets.

2 p.m. The Moscow Kremlin, the seat of the Russian Government, was built in the 15th century and houses cathedrals, museums, and unique objects from imperial Russia. Start with the Armory Chamber, a treasure trove of Fabergé eggs, imperial dresses, and gifts presented to the Tsars. Don’t miss the Diamond Fund inside the Armory where guests can marvel at the crown of Tsarina Catherine the Great.




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The Bolshoi Theatre hosts ballet and opera performances, including classics like Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake.

Take a stroll around Cathedral Square to admire the golden domes that mushroom from Orthodox cathedrals. Look out for the 19-foot-high bronze Tsar Bell for great photo ops. The nearby Tsar Cannon is also worth a look. Wrap up in the Kremlin Garden and see if you can spot Cosmos, the lone oak tree that was planted by Yuri Gagarin, the first man in space, two days after his extraordinary flight in April 1961. (Trees that traveled to space now live on Earth. Here’s where to find them.)

7 p.m. Finish your day with a ballet or opera performance at Bolshoi Theatre, one of the strongholds of Russian theatrical excellence since the 19th century. If you are lucky, you might be able to catch Tchaikovsky’s masterpiece Swan Lake on the stage where it premiered in 1877. Performances sell out so book in advance, and arrive early to enjoy the neoclassical building. Russians take theater seriously so wear your best outfit.

Day 2: Fine art and food

10 a.m. The extraordinary entrance to Tretyakov Gallery welcomes guests to Moscow’s most definitive collection of fine arts spanning almost a millennium. You can explore 12th-century icons and mosaics or get lost in the brushstrokes of 19th- and 20th-century Russian heavyweights such as Ivan Shishkin and Ilya Repin. The New Tretyakov wing showcases artists from the Soviet period.

1 p.m. Soak up some summer sun in one of Moscow’s most dynamic open spaces: Park Gorky, a hipster paradise that underwent a major makeover from a Soviet relic to the center of cultural life. Grab some food on the go or sit down for a meal at Grill Bar Zharovnya or La Boule. Wander through the open-air sculpture museum, Muzeon, the home of countless statues and symbols from the Soviet times. Muzeon runs next to the Moscow River and offers a great view of the almost 322-foot-high statue of Tsar Peter the Great.

7 p.m. One pl

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Episode 6: Harem Conspiracy Papyrus

Murder, succession and a 15 foot scroll of papyrus that reads like an ancient Egyptian episode of Law and Order. We get the lowdown on the judicial papyrus of Turin from National Geographic archaeolgist Fred Heibert, Egyptologists Susan Redford and Sahar Saleem.

TRANSCRIPT

FRED HIEBERT (ARCHAEOLOGIST): We’re at the National Geographic Museum here in Washington D.C. for a magnificent new exhibition on Queens of Egypt.

PETER GWIN (HOST): So it’s 8:30 in the morning. The museum hasn’t even opened yet and we’re getting a special tour from archaeologist-in-residence Fred Hiebert.

HIEBERT: It’s got 350 artifacts in it from the very oldest collection of Egyptian antiquities, actually, in the world.

GWIN: When Fred’s not out in the field studying ancient trade routes or searching for Nefertiti’s Tomb, he’s back here, helping to curate this museum. Fred winds us through the dimly-lit exhibit. He points out a perfectly preserved royal sandal, a bust of Cleopatra, some stone statues of Pharaohs from the Valley of the Kings.

HIEBERT: That’s a life-sized sculpture of Thutmose I.

GWIN: This is clearly a man who loves his job.

HEIBERT: Opening the boxes, it’s like Christmas 350 times over. Here’s this big box, it has no label whatsoever. We know that we have to open the box and it’s like – wait, wait — oh, it’s Thutmose!


GWIN: He brings us over to a long glass case.

HEIBERT: So we have here an absolutely unique papyrus. it’s about 18 feet long, describing this conspiracy that happened to pop off the Pharaoh.

GWIN: Fred says the text is written in hieratic — a cursive form of hieroglyphics. It’s really beautiful. But the details written down here? Those are not pretty.

HEIBERT: It’s a judicial document. It’s a record of a court proceeding, in which the court has identified a couple of perpetrators who were scheming to assassinate pharaoh Ramesses III. It describes having the perpetrators plead guilty. It describes how the perpetrators were forced to commit suicide. It’s all written down here.

GWIN: 39 people were convicted of high treason. Some were disfigured. Others were executed or forced to kill themselves. This papyrus tells the story of an inside job. A conspiracy hatched by the Pharaoh’s own family, by one of his wives.

[music]

GWIN: I’m Peter Gwin and this is Overheard at National Geographic. A show where we eavesdrop on the wild conversations we have at Nat Geo and follow them to the edges of our big, weird, and beautiful world. This week: a dynasty in disarray, a secret kept for millennia, and some new science that cracks the case wide open.

[music ends]

GWIN: It’s remarkable how much we still don’t know about Ancient Egypt. Egyptology is a field based on best interpretations. It’s filled with mystery. And this is a story that has stumped scholars for a very long time. What happened to Ramesses III? It’s been a mystery for more than 3000 years. But thanks to science and some clever detective work by dogged archeologists, we now have a better idea about what really went down.

SUSAN REDFORD (Egyptologist): I’m a dirt archaeologist. I dig in Egypt.

GWIN: Penn State University’s Susan Redford is, well, a dirt archaeologist.

REDFORD: Yeah, that’s what I call myself. I dig.

GWIN: Scholars call the papyrus Fred just showed us the Judicial Papyrus of Turin. It’s named after the museum in Turin, Italy, where it’s normally housed. But it’s got another name — the ‘Harem Conspiracy Papyrus.’

REDFORD: This document relates a conspiracy that was formed and instigated by the women of the royal harem against Ramesses III to overthrow him, to raise in rebellion, and to also displace the crown prince.

GWIN: This isn’t the usual stuff of royal harems. To ensure the family line, Egyptian Pharaohs had a lot of wives. They all lived in the harem. It started out as a special place in the palace but by the time of Ramesses III, the harems had evolved into entire estates with their own mini-economies. There were schools, livestock, agriculture, dozens of wives, even more kids. And the wives had a very important job: to keep the family dynasty going. Typically, there was a Great Royal Wife and then there were several other wives whose sons could also be in line for the throne.

REDFORD: I mean, the harem had have been a hotbed of intrigue. A powder keg of different women, especially if they bore the king’s sons. Like, whose son gets to be on the throne next?

GWIN: Top priority was given to the first-born son and as you might expect, sibling rivalry was very real. Ever since she was a grad student, Susan’s been fascinated by the Harem Conspiracy Papyrus.

REDFORD: And it really grabbed me. Of course. I think everybody loves a murder mystery.

[laughter]

GWIN: Susan says scholars have known about this papyrus for a long time. In the early 1800s it showed up at a market in Luxor, a place that, back then at least, was like a garage sale for Egyptian antiquities. It had been cut into pieces, probably so that it could be sold off in chunks for more money, so it’s hard to know how complete of a document it really is.

REDFORD: There was obviously a lot of unanswered questions.

GWIN: And there’s a rather conspicuous omission.

REDFORD: The women are not there. It includes the trial transcripts for the male perpetrators of the of the conspiracy and not the women.

GWIN: The court record says next to nothing about them, even though we know these women existed.

REDFORD: They were the king’s property. The women of the harem were king’s chattel. We’re never going to know their names or how many there were or what happened to them. Except for Tiye.

GWIN: Tiye. The only woman mentioned by name in the papyrus. And Susan thinks that Tiye wanted her son, Pentawere, to become the next pharaoh. She’s accused of instigating the whole rebellion. Egyptologists have speculated about who Tiye was for a long time. One interpretation by an American archaeologist in the early 1900s stuck, but it didn’t hold up for Susan.

REDFORD: One thing that caught my eye was that he mentioned that the assassination of the king was instigated by Tiye and he says, “Oh, this was the lesser wife of the king.” And that over the years that had become entered and repeated as though it were fact. And I thought, there’s something funny about that.

[music]

REDFORD: Because if she was a lesser wife of the king in the harem and there were countless women in the harem, why follow her?

GWIN: Right. Because Tiye rallied dozens of people to be her co-conspirators, including several powerful figures. The king’s physician, an army commander, the royal magician.

REDFORD: To feel that she could raise a rebellion with many high officials of the king following her, to put her son on the throne, and have the country go along with this — I thought, this is not a lesser wife. This is not some faceless member of the king’s harem.

GWIN: Susan knew there was definitely more to this story.

REDFORD: I wanted to investigate all aspects of this case, marshall all the evidence to try to come up with the full picture of what occurred.

GWIN: But the more she looked into the document, the more curious it got. For example, right at the beginning — the murdered pharaoh, Ramesses III, makes a strange appearance.

REDFORD: He is talking from beyond the grave. He’s saying, ‘I’m already dead. I’m already among the great gods.’ And he’s almost washing his hands as to what will become of these conspirators.

GWIN: So wait: the dead king’s ghost makes it into the judicial document? It’s kind of Shakespearean, right? But that spectral cameo has confused scholars for a long time. Some even wondered if Ramesses III had survived the assassination attempt.

But Susan is pretty convinced of her interpretation.

REDFORD: He died from this. There’s no question. But how did he die?

[pause]

GWIN: The court proceeding doesn’t identify a murder weapon. There’s no play-by-play of the crime scene, but we do have some physical evidence: the body of Ramesses III. He was found stashed in a tomb with a bunch of other royalty.

REDFORD: When this, the mummy of the king was examined — and he was examined in the 60s, when they only had X-ray machines. They x-rayed all the mummies, the royal mummies. And the mummy of Ramesses III, we knew he was assassinated in you know conspiracy. But these initial pathological examination with an x-ray, it showed no wounds to the body and you would think the quickest way to dispatch the king would be with, you know, you stab him — yeah!

GWIN: But it seemed like a natural death. There were other bodies, too. Tucked into the same tomb with Ramesses III were a handful of princes and princesses, some queens, some priests… all of these nicely embalmed mummies. And then, this other guy.

REDFORD: We’ve called it the Screaming Man because he looks like he died in agony. His head is back and his mouth is open. Now the interesting thing about this screaming man was that he wasn’t embalmed.

GWIN: Archaeologists had never found a mummy like this before. He was wrapped in a sheepskin. Which, back in the day, was kind of a trashy thing to wear to the afterlife. This was one janky mummy. The examination showed something else too.

REDFORD: It showed that his hands and his feet had been tied.

GWIN: Meaning he probably put up a fig

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Orcas eat great white sharks—new insights into rare behavior revealed

Emma Rigney

When Alisa Schulman-Janiger heard great white shark carcasses had washed up on South African beaches without their livers a few years ago, she was shocked.

“I was thinking, Déjà vu, here we go again,” says the biologist, a research associate at the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

In October 1997, tourists in a whale-watching boat off the Farallon Islands, near San Francisco, witnessed two killer whales attack a great white shark and consume its liver.

It was, at that time, the first documented sighting of killer whales eating white sharks. The incident sparked new lines of research, as well as some intriguing questions for Schulman-Janiger and many others: How could any ocean predator, even one called a killer whale, dominate the almighty great white?

“From that moment on, everything seemed to be different as far as perspective about orcas and white sharks,” Scot Anderson, a seasonal researcher for Monterey Bay Aquarium, says in the Whale That Ate Jaws: Eyewitness Report, which airs July 16 at 10 p.m. ET as part of National Geographic Channel’s SharkFest.

As it turns out, it wasn’t a fluke. In 2017, five white sharks were found beached on South Africa’s Western Cape. Though no one saw the South African killer whales—also known as orcas—kill the sharks, the parallels to the other attacks made orcas the likely culprits.

Overall, the incidents show that interactions between these two predators can have major impacts on the food chain, says Anderson. For instance, his recent study shows that the presence of orcas scares sharks away from elephant seal colonies in the Farallon Islands, which in turn benefits seals, the great white’s main prey.

Following the 1997 attack, the entire great white population—about a hundred animals—left the islands prematurely and skipped their annual seal smorgasbord, Anderson says.

Between 2006 and 2013, the team tagged 165 white sharks with acoustic tags, and confirmed their hypothesis: The years that great whites crossed paths with orcas, they ate fewer seals.

Tasty livers

Alison Kock, a marine biologist at the Cape Research Centre in Cape Town, South Africa, had already been studying two orcas that were attacking and eating livers of broadnose sevengill sharks, a species that lives in the kelp forests of False Bay.

They were named Port and Starboard, since their dorsal fins flopped over—one to the left and one to the right.

When the white shark carcasses washed ashore in 2017, Kock and colleagues suspected the orca duo was to blame. They performed CSI-style necropsies on the bodies, which were intact, save for an impressively neat tear between the two pectoral fins. Apparently the orcas knew exactly where the liver was located, and sucked the organ out of the open wound. (Watch a video of killer whales attacking a blue whale.)

Similarities between the white shark and sevengill carcasses led Kock and colleagues to believe the two orcas were also responsible for their deaths. Also, amateur video footage from the 1997 California attack suggested that the South African orcas also may have similarly worked together to take down the white sharks.

“It’s fascinating that these two whales seemed to have kind of honed this to perfection where it’s almost a s

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Why the Apollo missions made Florida synonymous with space

Catherine Zuckerman

In 1961, a sleepy strip of Florida’s eastern coastline got a wake-up call. President John F. Kennedy had just delivered a stirring speech to Congress extolling the importance of sending an astronaut to the moon before the decade’s end, and NASA had announced it would be building a state-of-the-art launch facility to support this mission. The chosen location? Merritt Island, just a hop away from Cape Canaveral.

NASA selected Merritt Island for a couple of reasons. First, its East Coast position on the Florida peninsula means that spacecraft can be launched over open water—a safer alternative to launching over populated areas. Second, its proximity to the Equator means that Earth’s spin there is slightly stronger, giving an extra boost to spacecraft as they lift off into orbit. (Find out more about where the world’s spaceports are located.)




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Alicja Brandt (left) and Karl Brandt (center) stand for a portrait with Karl’s rocket collection on Melbourne Beach, Florida, alongside their children (from left), Ania, Olek, and Adam. The Brandts are all members of the Boy Scouts of America.

By 1963, the federal government had acquired roughly 140,000 acres on which to build what would be called the Kennedy Space Center. And by 1969, Apollo 11 was blasting off to fulfill President Kennedy’s moon-shot goal.

Since then, the space industry has grown, and tourism has followed suit. Now known as Florida’s Space Coast, the 72-mile-stretch between Cape Canaveral and Palm Bay, just east of Orlando, has become a destination for rocket lovers, shuttle nerds, and astronaut wannabes. Visitors to the Kennedy Space Center can learn about the progress—and failures—of space exploration, while local museums, restaurants, and events offer an endless buffet of space- and Apollo-themed experiences.




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Players pause during football practice at Astronaut High School in Titusville, Florida.

The Apollo project sparked a boom for aerospace contractors in the region, transforming a quiet region of mostly orange groves into a technology and engineering hub. For the people who live year-round on the Space Coast, astronaut sightings are normal, and rocket launches are practically quotidian. And for kids growing up on the shores of Titusville, going to school may mean attending Apollo Elementary or Astronaut High.

Perhaps surprisingly, humans aren’t the only local residents that benefited from the region’s focus on space. That’s because only a portion of the land that NASA owns on Merritt Island is used for spacefaring activity.

“It’s a rather small part that’s developed for our operational area,” says Tom Engler, director of center planning and development at Kennedy Space Center. The rest of that land, which includes the Merritt Island Wildlife Refuge, is managed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, which maintains a close working relationship with NASA.




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See a lunar eclipse on the Apollo 11 launch anniversary

Andrew Fazekas

On July 16, 1969, the crew of the Apollo 11 mission launched on their historic trip to land the first humans on the moon. Now, 50 years to the day, people on Earth will be able to commemorate that moment by watching the moon undergo a deep partial eclipse.

Observers in Europe and Africa will witness the lunar disappearing act on the night of July 16, with the most dramatic part of the eclipse arriving at 5:31 p.m. ET (21:31 UT). Keen-eyed sky-watchers should see the moon undergo a noticeable decrease in brightness and maybe even a slight change in color. Stargazers in the Middle East and eastern Africa will see the greatest extent of the eclipse occur around their local midnight.

Viewers across parts of Asia and the Pacific basin will get their turn to see a big bite taken out of the moon in the early morning hoursof the 17th, just before the moon sets in the west. And although people in North America will unfortunately miss out on the sky show, they will have opportunities to see it broadcast live from various locations.

Deep shadow

A lunar eclipse occurs when the sun, Eart

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Surfboard shapers hone the means to catch a perfect wave

Patricia Edmonds

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Tool Kit

The materials for surfboards have expanded from wood to polyurethane, but the artisans known as shapers still customize boards by hand.

The materials for surfboards have expanded from wood to polyurethane, but the artisans known as shapers still customize boards by hand.

This story appears in the
August 2019 issue of
National Geographic magazine.

Terry Martin carved his first surfboard at age 14, and tens of thousands more during the next 60 years. That put him in the elite ranks of the board artisans known as shapers (Surfing Magazine recognized just 720 of them in the past 100 years). Since Martin’s death in 2012, his son Josh has carried on the tradition. Today’s shapers craft surfboards with modern materials such as polyurethane foam or with wood such as balsa and coast redwood. Josh fashions boards for world-class competitive surfers, using tools that he and his dad once shared.

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Our three favorite scientific breakthroughs this month

National Geographic Staff

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Photograph By CARLTON WARD, JR

Photograph By CARLTON WARD, JR

What do rare orchids, crocodiles, and meteorites have in common? Science.

This story appears in the
August 2019 issue of
National Geographic magazine.

Plant’s pollinator secrets revealed

For exotic beauty, few flowers rival the ghost orchid (Dendrophylax lindenii). These rare orchids have long nectar tubes into which moths stick their tonguelike proboscises to reach a sugary reward. As they feed, moths rub against a pollen source and pick up grains they’ll transfer to other orchids they visit.

Rare ghost orchid has multiple pollinators, groundbreaking video reveals

Scientists and photographers captured footage that upends what we know about the famed, endangered flower.

It’s long been thought that only one insect, the giant sphinx moth, had a long enough proboscis to pollinate these orchids—but new images and research refute that. Photographers Carlton Ward, Jr., and Mac Stone, working with biologists Mark Danaher (of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service) and Peter Houlihan, spent years preparing and fine-tuning remote cameras. The payoff: photos of two other moth species with pollen on their bodies visiting ghost orchids in Florida parks (including a streaked sphinx (top image) in Florida Panther National Wildlife Refuge). Meanwhile, new measurements suggest that even more moth species may be able to reach the orchid’s nectar. “It’s incredible,” Ward says, to make a discovery about this “symbol of hidden wildness.” —Douglas Main




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Preserving meteorites for study

Rocks from space regularly rain down on our planet, but only a few survive the fall. At Arizona State University’s Center for Meteorite Studies, some 40,000 meteorite remnants—such as the rare metal-and-crystal pallasite above—are stored in a humidity-controlled facility. The goal is to keep them free of contamination so future generations can study them for clues to how our solar system formed, and how we might one day survive in space. —Maya Wei-Haas




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Bellyful of stones

It’s not unusual for crocodiles, alligators, and other crocodilians to have a stomach full of stones. Scientists have long assumed the stones help the semiaquatic reptiles digest prey; a new study suggests they also enable the crocs to spend more time submerged. —Annie Roth

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How we’re covering migration, one of this century’s critical stories

Susan Goldberg

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Photograph By John Stanmeyer

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A Kurdish family waits in a car after fleeing Syria for Turkey, to escape an Islamic State advance. Some 150,000 Syrians—most of them Kurds—crossed into Turkey in one 72-hour period in September 2014.

Photograph By John Stanmeyer

After successive refugee waves, more people have been forcibly displaced than at any other time since World War II—68.5 million by the UN’s latest count.

This story appears in the
August 2019 issue of
National Geographic magazine.

Five years ago I spent a few days with National Geographic Fellow Paul Salopek, a writer who is walking around the world, retracing the journey begun when modern humans first left Africa. Salopek’s walking 21,000 miles; I joined him for five miles I’ll never forget.

In Şanlıurfa, a dusty town in southern Turkey that is reputed to be the birthplace of Abraham, we found ourselves in the middle of a humanitarian crisis. Everywhere we looked, we saw Syrian refugees—in throngs on the streets, in small apartments crammed with multiple families. We saw people unable to find work of any kind, no matter their skills or education. We talked with people scared and scarred by their country’s brutal civil war; we heard stories of suffering, rape, torture, and other horrific crimes.

At the time, the United Nations reported that 51 million people worldwide had been forcibly displaced, for reasons ranging from war to economic hardship. That report declared the 2013 refugee count the highest since World War II. Unfortunately, the record’s been broken every year since. The latest UN report says 68.5 million people had been forcibly displaced by the end of 2017.

Humankind has always been on the move, fleeing a peril or searching for something better. In this month’s issue, we focus on those migrations, past and present. Writer Andrew Curry takes us inside a new science—paleogenetics—and explains what it’s revealing about the migrations that have shaped the populations of modern Europe.

Salopek journeys by choice, unlike many of the migrants he meets. His cover story describes the desperation of those trying to escape war, starvation, disaster: “How strong is the push to leave? To abandon what you love? To walk into the unknown with all your possessions stuffed into a pocket? It is more powerful than fear of death.”

The World Bank says that by 2050, the effects of climate change will spur some 143 million people to migrate. As one global threat compounds another, we will continue to provide thorough and meaningful coverage of these human journeys.

Thank you for reading National Geographic.

Paul Salopek began his Out of Eden Walk in 2013. Supported by the National Geographic Society and the Knight Foundation, he’s covering the major stories of our time by giving voice to the people who inhabit them. Follow him online at
outofedenwalk.org.

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